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who ran against lincoln in 1860

Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, John C. Breckinridge of the Southern Democrats, and John Bell of the Constitutional Union Party ran all against Lincoln in 1860. The 1860 presidential election conventions were unusually tumultuous, due in particular to a split in the Democratic Party that led to rival conventions. The first 1860 Democratic National Convention adjourned in Charleston, South Carolina, without agreeing on a nominee, but a second convention in Baltimore, Maryland, nominated Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois for president. William H. Seward, Salmon P. Chase and Abraham Lincoln of Illinois are the leading contenders from a field of 12 candidates. [11][15], John Bell was a former Whig who had opposed the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the Lecompton Constitution. ; THE HOUSTON MASS MEETING. The Democratic Party held its convention in April–May 1860 in Charleston, S.C., where a disagreement over the official party policy on slavery prompted dozens of delegates from Southern states to withdraw. The Republican victory resulted from the concentration of votes in the free states, which together controlled a majority of the presidential electors. Eventually, the state party worked out an agreement: if either candidate could win the national election with Pennsylvania's electoral vote, then all her electoral votes would go to that candidate. It wasn’t that Lincoln was the first nominee for the … Unlike every preceding president-elect, Lincoln did not carry even one slave state. Updates? In late … Lincoln was outraged at the passage of the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act. Houston's supporters at the gathering did not nominate a vice-presidential candidate, since they expected later gatherings to carry out that function. [3], As the convention developed, however, it was revealed that frontrunners Seward, Chase, and Bates had each alienated factions of the Republican Party. He engineered that the convention would happen in Chicago, which would be inherently friendly to the Illinois based Lincoln. McClellan was the "peace candidate" but did not personally believe in his party's platform. After his nomination, Lincoln put aside his law practice and ran a stay-at-home campaign, in which he made no stump speeches, though he did give full time to the direction of his campaign. The party, which had formed only in the 1850s, was largely opposed to the extension of slavery in the U.S. territories. The Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision of 1857, which voided the Missouri Compromise (1820) and made slavery legal in all U.S. territories, confirmed many Americans’ belief that compromise had been exhausted as a solution of the problem of slavery, the source of heated sectional conflict and the most important issue in mid-19th-century America. [citation needed] However, Chase's firm antislavery stance made him popular with the radical Republicans. At the Democratic National Convention held in Institute Hall in Charleston, South Carolina, in April 1860, 50 Southern Democrats walked out over a platform dispute, led by the extreme pro-slavery "Fire-Eater" William Lowndes Yancey and the Alabama delegation: following them were the entire delegations of Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas, three of the four delegates from Arkansas, and one of the three delegates from Delaware. The presidential aspirations in the 1860 campaign of “Honest Abe,” Republican Abraham Lincoln, were not without periodic acerbic exchanges with his … Who ran against Lincoln in 1864? Starting in the 1856 United States presidential election and certainly by 1860, the Republican Party had replaced the defunct Whig Party as the major opposition to the Democrats. Lincoln did not attend the convention in person, and left the task of delegate wrangling to several close friends. They then formed the Confederate States of America. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 27, 2005. With the support of President Buchanan, the Southern Democrats held their own convention and nominated Vice President John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky for president. Abraham Lincoln from Illinois, was lesser known, and was not considered to have a good chance against Seward. The Fusion vote used here is the vote for the high elector on the slate, who was pledged to Douglas. [46], Bertram Wyatt-Brown argues that secessionists desired independence as necessary for their honor. Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas championed this law as a way to end the ongoing debate in Congress on whether to admit states as free states or slave states. Outside his regional section, Douglas took 15 to 17% of the popular vote total in the slave states of Kentucky, Alabama, and Louisiana, then 10 percent or less in the nine remaining slave states. election between Abraham Lincoln, John C. Breckinridge, John Bell and Stephen A. Douglas, * Third party is endorsed by a major party, Democratic (Northern Democratic) Party nomination, Southern Democratic Party candidates gallery, Liberty Party (Radical Abolitionists, Union) candidates gallery. In federal elections from the 1870s to the 1890s, the parties were in rough balance—except in the South, which became solidly Democratic. Tennessee held a referendum on having a secession convention, which failed. He had just started his second term when he was assassinated in April of 1865. This absurdly low total was partly due to the fact that four candidates were on the ballot, but it remains the poorest showing by any winning presidential candidate in American history. The slate of electors were pledged to 3 different candidates: 18 to Douglas, 10 to Bell, and 7 to Breckinridge. Delegates were in attendance from New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Kentucky, and Massachusetts. Who did Abe Lincoln run against in 1860? A wealthy slaveowner from Tennessee who served in both the House and the Senate, he ran for U.S. President against Lincoln, Breckinridge, and Douglas in 1860 with the Constitutional Union Party on a moderate pro-slavery platform. Lincoln was not unknown; he had gained prominence in the Lincoln–Douglas debates, and had served as a house representative from Illinois. [3], Into this mix came Lincoln. Breckinridge convincingly carried only three of the six states of the Deep South (South Carolina, Florida, and Mississippi). [9][10], Senator Robert M. T. Hunter from Virginia, Former Senator Daniel S. Dickinson from New York. Douglas attained a 28 to 47% share in the states of the Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, and Trans-Mississippi West, but slipped to 19 to 39% in New England. Douglas was the only candidate who won electoral votes in both slave and free states (free New Jersey and slave Missouri). By Lincoln’s inauguration in March, seven Southern states had seceded. At most, a single opponent nationwide would have deprived Lincoln of only California, Oregon, and four New Jersey electors,[35] whose combined total of eleven electoral votes would have made no difference to the result since every other state won by the Republicans was won by a clear majority of the vote: in this scenario, Lincoln would have received 169 electoral votes, 17 more than the 152 required to win. Abraham Lincoln’s chief competitors for the nomination as the presidential candidate of the Republican Party in 1860 were front-runner William H. Seward, a U.S. senator from New York; Salmon P. Chase, the governor of Ohio; and Edward Bates, a prominent state legislator from Missouri. The new party's members hoped to stave off Southern secession by avoiding the slavery issue. Several of the delegates were women. [14] They met in the Eastside District Courthouse of Baltimore and nominated John Bell from Tennessee for president over Governor Sam Houston of Texas on the second ballot. Later mass meetings were held in northern cities, such as New York City on May 30, 1860, but they too failed to nominate a vice-presidential candidate. where he received 1,929 votes (1.15 percent of the total). Lincoln was the second President-elect to poll no votes in any state which had a popular vote (the first was John Quincy Adams, who polled no ballots in the popular votes of two states in the election of 1824, although that was a unique election in which there were four major candidates, none of whom distributed ballots in every state). Another bloc of Southerners resented Northern criticism of slavery and restrictions on slavery but opposed secession as dangerous and unnecessary. Lincoln received almost 40 percent of the popular vote with over 1.8 million votes. In the 1860 presidential election, Abraham Lincoln ran against the Southern Democratic candidate John C. Breckinridge, Northern Democratic candidate Stephen Douglas and Constitutional Union candidate John Bell and, in the 1864 election, he ran against Democratic candidate George B. McClellan. Map of presidential election results by county, Map of Republican presidential election results by county, Map of Northern Democratic presidential election results by county, Map of Southern Democratic presidential election results by county, Map of Constitutional Union presidential election results by county, Map of "Fusion" slate presidential election results by county, Cartogram of presidential election results by county, Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county, Cartogram of Northern Democratic presidential election results by county, Cartogram of Southern Democratic presidential election results by county, Cartogram of Constitutional Union presidential election results by county, Cartogram of "Fusion" slate presidential election results by county. Of the 97 votes cast for Lincoln in the state's post-1863 boundaries, 93 were polled in four counties along the Potomac River and four were tallied in the coastal city of Portsmouth.[26]. Yet it alienated Douglas with southerners he would need in 1860 when he ran for president against Lincoln. After the convention concluded with no vice-presidential nominee, Douglas offered the nomination to Herschel Vespasian Johnson from Georgia, who accepted. Voter turnout was 81.2%, the highest in American history up to that time, and the second-highest overall (exceeded only in the election of 1876). He also made sure that the Illinois delegation would vote as a bloc for him. Baltimore's Institute Hall, not be confused with Charleston's Institute Hall also used by the walk-out delegations. Nevertheless, he finished a remarkable second in all slave states won by Breckinridge or Douglas. The Breckinridge and Bell electors finished behind all other candidates. United States presidential election of 1860, American presidential election held on November 6, 1860, in which Republican Abraham Lincoln defeated Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, and Constitutional Union candidate John Bell. "Deep South" here in presidential popular votes refers to Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. Lincoln then called for troops to put down rebellion, which wiped out the possibility that the crisis could be resolved by compromise. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Decredico, Mary A. A group of former Whigs and Know Nothings formed the Constitutional Union Party, which sought to avoid secession by pushing aside the issue of slavery. Though many party members favoured the total abolition of slavery, the party pragmatically did not call for abolition in those states that already had slavery. Three ‘Outs’ and One ‘Run’ Progressive…Read more › Lincoln's election served as the primary catalyst of the American Civil War. Douglas, in his "Norfolk Doctrine", reiterated in North Carolina, promised to keep the Union together by coercion if states proceeded to secede: the popular vote for Lincoln and Douglas combined was 69.17% of the turnout. To overcome his disadvantage, Lincoln adopted an unobtrusive publicity campaign. Among the slave states, the three states with the highest voter turnouts voted the most one-sided. Nonetheless, loyal army officers in Virginia, Kansas and South Carolina warned Lincoln of military preparations to the contrary. After two ballots - the 59th ballot overall - the remaining Democrats nominated Stephen A. Douglas from Illinois for president. This was often referred to as the Reading electoral slate, because it was in that city that the state party chose it. Young politician Richard Oglesby had secretly found several fence rails from the Hanks-Lincoln farm that Lincoln may have split as a youngster, and paraded them into the convention with a banner that proclaimed Lincoln to be "The Rail Candidate" for President. Meant all the southern delegates who walked out in Charleston left. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Douglas's support for the concept of popular sovereignty, which called for each territory to decide itself on the status of slavery, alienated many Southern Democrats. Many Southerners saw the potential election of Abraham Lincoln, the candidate of the antislavery Republican Party, as a threat to their way of life and the harbinger of secession. Since 1860, and excluding unreconstructed Southern states prior to 1872, there have been two occasions where a Republican presidential candidate failed to poll votes in every state[nb 4], while national Democratic candidates have failed to appear on all state ballots in three elections since the introduction of the secret ballot, though in all three, the Democratic candidate nonetheless won the presidency,[nb 5], but none of them were in as many states as Lincoln in 1860. Northern Democrat Stephen A. Douglas took nearly 30 percent of the vote but won only Missouri’s 12 electoral votes. In most of Virginia, no publisher would print ballots for Lincoln's pledged electors. While the Democrats convened again at the Front Street Theater in Baltimore, Maryland, on June 18, 110 Southern delegates (led by "Fire-Eaters") boycotted the convention or walked out after the convention informed them they would not adopt a resolution supporting extending slavery into territories whose voters did not want it. Except in some border areas, the Republican party did not attempt any organization in the South and did not print ballots there because almost no one was willing to acknowledge publicly they were voting for Lincoln for fear of violent retribution. Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". Election poster, campaign of Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin, 1860, lithograph. Nonetheless, he remained popular in the party because he had helped inspire some of John Brown's supporters at the Raid on Harpers Ferry. For the results of the subsequent election, see United States presidential election of 1864. However, the divisions of the Republicans' opponents were not in themselves decisive in ensuring the Republican capture of the White House, as Lincoln received absolute majorities in states that combined for a majority of the electoral votes. Douglas, however, was an active campaigner, in both the North and the South, where he gave a passionate defense of the Union and strenuously opposed secession. Six candidates were nominated: Stephen A. Douglas from Illinois, James Guthrie from Kentucky, Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter from Virginia, Joseph Lane from Oregon, Daniel S. Dickinson from New York, and Andrew Johnson from Tennessee, while three other candidates, Isaac Toucey from Connecticut, James Pearce from Maryland, and Jefferson Davis from Mississippi (the future president of the Confederate States) also received votes. [32], Lincoln's strategy was deliberately focused, in collaboration with Republican Party Chairman Thurlow Weed, on expanding on the states Frémont won four years earlier: New York was critical with 35 Electoral College votes, 11.5 percent of the total, and with Pennsylvania (27) and Ohio (23) as well, a candidate could collect 85 votes, whereas 152 were required to win. The Wide Awakes young Republican men's organization massively expanded registered voter lists, and although Lincoln was not even on the ballot in most Southern states, population increases in the free states had far exceeded those seen in the slave states for many years before the election of 1860, hence free states dominated in the Electoral College.[33]. States where the margin of victory was under 1%: States where the margin of victory was under 5%: States where the margin of victory was under 10%: Lincoln's victory and imminent inauguration as president was the immediate cause for declarations of secession by seven Southern states (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas) from 20 December 1860 to 1 February 1861. Baltimore, they rejoined ( except South Carolina from the 1870s to the states. Had been governor and Senator of New York to Lincoln 1860 United states presidential election of 1856 of. In spite of his professed ill health, Gerrit Smith from New York voting! United states had been carried by Buchanan in 1856 texas was the candidate of the American Civil War ; of. A slate of electors before the National Union banner against his former top Civil War the previous election see. Smith from New York select which sections you would like to print who ran against lincoln in 1860?! 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Opposed secession as dangerous and unnecessary president of the six states of America.!

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